Credits

Conception, design and development

ID Deux Points Agency - https://www.iddeuxpoints.com/

 

Crédits photos & contents 

Shutterstock

 

Area’s pages

EUROPE AREA

  1. The foundation treaty of the European Union. Came into force in 1993.
  2. Vitali Kremez, ‘Let’s Learn: In-Depth on APT28/Sofacy Zebrocy Golang Loader’, accessed 20 September 2021, https://www.vkremez.com/2018/12/lets-learn-dissecting-apt28sofacy.html.
  3. Malpedia, ‘Zebrocy (Malware Family)’, Malpedia, accessed 20 September 2021, https://malpedia.caad.fkie.fraunhofer.de/details/win.zebrocy.
  4. Accenture, ‘Snakemackerel Delivers Zekapab Malware’, WordPressBlog, 29 November 2018, https://www.accenture.com/us-en/blogs/cyber-defense/snakemackerel-delivers-zekapab-malware.
  5. MITRE ATT&CK®, ‘Zebrocy, Software S0251’, MITRE ATT&CK®, 23 April 2021, https://attack.mitre.org/software/S0251/.
  6. Dark Reading Staff, ‘France’s TV5Monde Was Victim Of Vicious Cyberattack In 2015’, Dark Reading, 11 October 2016, https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/france-s-tv5monde-was-victim-of-vicious-cyberattack-in-2015.
  7. Dominique Filippone, ‘Ransomware Maze : Bouygues Construction remédie, l’ANSSI documente - Le Monde Informatique’, LeMondeInformatique, 6 February 2020, https://www.lemondeinformatique.fr/actualites/lire-ransomware-maze-bouygues construction-remedie-l-anssi-documente-78010.html.
  8. Lawrence Abrams, ‘Sopra Steria Confirms Being Hit by Ryuk Ransomware Attack’, BleepingComputer, 26 October 2020, https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/sopra-steria-confirms-being-hit-by-ryuk-ransomware-attack/.
  9. Ionut Ilascu, ‘Enel Group Hit by Ransomware Again, Netwalker Demands $14 Million’, BleepingComputer, 27 October 2020, https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/enel-group-hit-by-ransomware-again-netwalker-demands-14-million/.
  10. Jason Sattler, ‘The Kaseya Ransomware Case Continues Ransomware Groups’ Abuse of Trust’, F-Secure Blog, 7 July 2021, https://blog.f-secure.com/the-kaseya-ransomware-case-continues-ransomware-groups-abuse-of-trust/.
  11. Johan Ahlander and Joseph Menn, ‘Major Ransomware Attack against U.S. Tech Provider Forces Swedish Store Closures’, Reuters, 4 July 2021, sec. Technology, https://www.reuters.com/technology/cyber-attack-against-us-it-provider-forces-swedish-chain-close-800-stores-2021-07-03/.
  12. Naveen Goud, ‘Cyber Attack on Airbus’, Cybersecurity Insiders, 27 September 2019, https://www.cybersecurity-insiders.com/cyber-attack-on-airbus/.
  13. Daphne Leprince-Ringuet, ‘This New Hacking Group Is Using “island Hopping” to Target Victims’, ZDNet, 3 October 2019, https://www.zdnet.com/article/this-new-hacking-group-is-using-island-hopping-to-target-victims/.
  14. Orlee Berlove, ‘Airbus Attacked by Avivore – China’s Bird Eater’, Security Boulevard (blog), 8 October 2019, https://securityboulevard.com/2019/10/airbus-attacked-by-avivore-chinas-bird-eater/.
  15. https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/conflict-ukraine
  16. https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/russian-military-almost-certainly-responsible-destructive-2017-cyber-attack
  17. European Commission, ‘A Credible Enlargement Perspective for and Enhanced EU Engagement with the Western Balkans’, Text, EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission, 12 February 2018, https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/39720/credible-enlargement-perspective-and-enhanced-eu-engagement-western-balkans_en.
  18. Živilė Kalibataitė, ‘Le spectre des menaces russes dans les Pays baltes’, Les Champs de Mars N° 30 + Supplément, no. 1 (25 May 2018): 139–46.
  19. https://www.thenationalnews.com/world/europe/dutch-intelligence-warns-of-iran-s-continued-quest-for-weapons-of-mass-destruction-1.1216375

 

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES  AREA

  1. The Republic of Abkhazia is recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru and Syria.
  2. Ethnic group with a predominantly Sunni culture and religion.
  3. Mathieu Duchâtel et Al., Eurasian integration and the EU, ECFR, May 2016.
  4. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/in-central-asias-forbidding-highlands-a-quiet-newcomer-chinese-troops/2019/02/18/78d4a8d0-1e62-11e9-a759-2b8541bbbe20_story.html?utm_term=.74eb2b2e2901
  5. As a reminder, Georgia, Ukraine and the Baltic States are not or no longer part of the CIS.

 

WESTERN ASIA  AREA

  1. https://www.bestvpnanalysis.com/man-middle-attack/

 

AFRICA

  1. Patrick Manning, ‘African Population Totals, 1850-1960’ (Harvard Dataverse, 14 December 2014), https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/28045.
  2. McKinsey, ‘Lions Go Digital: The Internet’s Transformative Potential in Africa’, McKinsey Global Institute, 1 November 2013, https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/industries/technology%20media%20and%20telecommunications/high%20tech/our%20insights/lions%20go%20digital%20the%20internets%20transformative%20potential%20in%20africa/mgi_lions_go_digital_full_report_nov2013.pdf.
  3. Symantec (Broadcom), ‘Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Trends in Africa – Global Forum on Cyber Expertise’, Global Forum on Cyber Expertise – GFCE, 20 June 2016, https://thegfce.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/CybersecuritytrendsreportAfrica-en-2.pdf.
  4. Internet World Stats, ‘Africa Internet Users, 2021 Population and Facebook Statistics’, Internet World Stats, 2021, https://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm.
  5. Dominique Tabutin and Bruno Schoumaker, ‘La démographie de l’Afrique subsaharienne au XXIe siècle’, Population Vol. 75, no. 2 (1 December 2020): 169–295.
  6. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, ‘Population of Africa (2021)’, Worldometer, 2021, https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/africa-population/.
  7. Symantec (Broadcom), ‘Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Trends in Africa – Global Forum on Cyber Expertise’.
  8. Servicesmobiles.fr, ‘Le Nigéria peut compter sur 184,6 millions d’abonnés actifs sur mobile !’, Servicesmobiles.fr, 4 March 2020, https://www.servicesmobiles.fr/le-nigeria-peut-compter-sur-1846-millions-dabonnes-actifs-sur-mobile-55840.
  9. GSMA, ‘The Mobile Economy: Sub-Saharan Africa’, The Mobile Economy (blog), 2021, https://www.gsma.com/mobileeconomy/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/GSMA_ME_SSA_2021_English_Web_Singles.pdf.
  10. Nathaniel Allen, ‘Africa’s Evolving Cyber Threats’.
  11. Kit Chellel, ‘The Hacker Who Took Down a Country’, Bloomberg.Com, 20 December 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-12-20/spiderman-hacker-daniel-kaye-took-down-liberia-s-internet.
  12. Sergiu Gatlan, ‘Ransomware Attack Cripples Power Company’s Entire Network’, BleepingComputer, 25 July 2019, https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-attack-cripples-power-company-s-entire-network/.
  13. Sergiu Gatlan, ‘Ransomware Attack Shuts Down City of Johannesburg’s Systems’, BleepingComputer, 25 October 2019, https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-attack-shuts-down-city-of-johannesburgs-systems/.
  14. Joey Shea, ‘Egypt’s Digital Foreign Policy’, The Tahrir Institue for Middle East Policy (TIMEP), 2 February 2021, https://timep.org/commentary/analysis/egypts-digital-foreign-policy/.
  15. Catherine Chapman, ‘How Africa Is Tackling Its Cybersecurity Skills Gap’, The Daily Swig | Cybersecurity news and views, 22 August 2018, https://portswigger.net/daily-swig/how-africa-is-tackling-its-cybersecurity-skills-gap.
  16. Nathaniel Allen, ‘Africa’s Evolving Cyber Threats’, Africa Center for Strategic Studies (blog), 19 January 2021, https://africacenter.org/spotlight/africa-evolving-cyber-threats/.
  17. Symantec (Broadcom), ‘Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Trends in Africa – Global Forum on Cyber Expertise’.
  18. Nathaniel Allen, ‘Africa’s Evolving Cyber Threats’.

 

 

SOUTH ASIA

  1. Cybleinc, ‘Transparent Tribe Operating with a New Variant of Crimson RAT’, Cyble, 30 April 2021, https://blog.cyble.com/2021/04/30/transparent-tribe-operating-with-a-new-variant-of-crimson-rat/.
  2. CisoMag, ‘Pakistani APT Group ‘SideCopy’ targets officials in India and Afghanistan’, 6 December 2021
  3. https://cisomag.eccouncil.org/pakistani-apt-group-sidecopy-targets-officials-in-india-and-afghanistan/

 

 

EAST ASIA

  1. Franck Manuelle, ‘Une géographie de l’Asie du Sud-Est’, Document, Géoconfluences (ENS Lyon), 3 June 2020, http://geoconfluences.ens-lyon.fr/informations-scientifiques/dossiers-regionaux/asie-du-sud-est/cadrage.
  2. Hyonhee Shin, ‘N.Korea’s Trade with China Plunges 80% as COVID-19 Lockdown Bites’, Reuters, 19 January 2021, sec. China, https://www.reuters.com/world/china/nkoreas-trade-with-china-plunges-80-covid-19-lockdown-bites-2021-01-19/.
  3. Lee Seong-hyon, ‘China-N. Korea Defense Treaty’, koreatimes, 26 July 2016, https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/opinion/2021/10/197_210355.html.
  4. Kristian McGuire, ‘Dealing With Chinese Sanctions: South Korea and Taiwan’, 12 May 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/dealing-with-chinese-sanctions-south-korea-and-taiwan/.
  5. The association between these two groups is evident in particular by their shared link with a third actor: ATK159 (SideWinder).
  6. Dominique André, ‘Vietnam-Chine : la guerre des nerfs en mer de Chine méridionale’, Franceinfo, 8 March 2017, https://www.francetvinfo.fr/monde/chine/vietnam-chine-la-guerre-des-nerfs-en-mer-de-chine-meridionale_2086893.html.
  7. Trend Micro Security, ‘ESILE Targeted Attack Campaign Hits APAC Governments’, Trend Micro, 28 July 2014, https://www.trendmicro.com.my/vinfo/my/security/news/cyber-attacks/esile-targeted-attack-campaign-hits-apac-governments.
  8. Robert Falcone et al., ‘Operation Lotus Blossom (Reports)’, Palo Alto Networks, 16 June 2015, https://www.paloaltonetworks.com/resources/research/unit42-operation-lotus-blossom.
  9. Kevin Stear, ‘Lotus Blossom Continues ASEAN Targeting’, RSA Link, 13 February 2018, https://community.rsa.com/t5/netwitness-blog/lotus-blossom-continues-asean-targeting/ba-p/518891.
  10. Julia Wallace, ‘Cambodia Charges Opposition Leader Kem Sokha With Treason’, The New York Times, 5 September 2017, sec. World, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/05/world/asia/cambodia-kem-sokha-treason.html.
  11. Matt Spetalnick and Rosemarie Francisco, ‘Obama Puts South China Sea Dispute on Agenda as Summitry Begins’, Reuters, 17 November 2015, sec. Emerging Markets, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-apec-summit-idUSKCN0T60RM20151117.
  12. Adam Pilkey, ‘NanHaiShu: Threat Intelligence Brief on Intelligence Gathering Attacks’, F-Secure Blog, 4 August 2016, https://blog.f-secure.com/nanhaishu-threat-intelligence-brief-on-intelligence-gathering-attacks/.
  13. Ji Young Kong, Jong In Lim, and Kyoung Gon Kim, ‘The All-Purpose Sword: North Korea’s Cyber Operations and Strategies’ (Tallinn: 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, 2019), https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2019/06/Art_08_The-All-Purpose-Sword.pdf.  

 

Attackers’ pages :

 

ATK103

 

ATK132 

 

ATK41

 

ATK236

 

ATK3

 

 

ATK41

 

ATK5

 

ATK51

 

ATK66

 

 

ATK64

 

 

Sector’s pages

 

AUTOMOTIVE

  1. https://www.kaspersky.com/blog/blackhat-jeep-cherokee-hack-explained/9493/
  2. https://www.inc.com/minda-zetlin/chinese-hackers-take-control-of-a-tesla-from-12-miles-away-most-cars-are-probabl.html
  3. https://smartcar.com/blog/connected-cars-worldwide/
  4. https://www.trustonic.com/opinion/the-changing-face-of-automotive-cyber-attacks/

 

AVIATION

  1. https://www.pandasecurity.com/en/mediacenter/mobile-news/can-airplanes-get-hacked/
  2. https://www.newsweek.com/flight-airplanes-can-now-be-hacked-ground-cyber-expert-warns-962420

 

HEALTHCARE

  1. https://www.sophos.com/en-us/medialibrary/pdfs/whitepaper/sophos-state-of-ransomware-in-healthcare-2021-wp.pdf
  2. https://www.morganfranklin.com/insights/company-insight/healthcare-cyber-threat-landscape/

 

GOVERNMENT AND DEFENSE

  1. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/09/our-cities-are-increasingly-vulnerable-to-cyberattacks-heres-how-they-can-fight-back/
  2. https://www.lebigdata.fr/solarwinds-cyberattaque-historique-usa
  3. https://www.csoonline.com/article/3391589/why-local-governments-are-a-hot-target-for-cyberattacks.html

 

LEGAL

  1. https://ironscales.com/blog/ransomware-legal/
  2. https://www.darktrace.com/en/resources/ds-legal.pdf
  3. https://atlasvpn.com/blog/31-of-us-companies-close-down-after-falling-victim-to-ransomware
  4. https://www.lawsoc-ni.org/DatabaseDocs/med_7625870__thecyberthreattouklegalsectorncsc.pdf
  5. https://www.centripetal.ai/legal-sector-cyber-threat-intelligence/
  6. https://www.legalfutures.co.uk/blog/the-rising-risk-of-cybercrime-for-law-firms
  7. https://www.legalfutures.co.uk/latest-news/service-provider-hack-sees-100gb-of-data-stolen-from-top-law-firm
  8. https://iasme.co.uk/cyber-blog/why-is-it-important-for-the-legal-sector-to-fully-address-their-cyber-security/
  9. https://www.sra.org.uk/sra/research-report/cyber-security/
  10. https://carecomputers.co.uk/key-cybersecurity-considerations-for-the-legal-sector/
  11. https://www.digitalshadows.com/blog-and-research/ransomware-and-the-legal-services-sector/
  12. https://ironscales.com/blog/ransomware-legal/

 

EDUCATION / RESEARCH

  1. https://swivelsecure.com/solutions/education/why-cybersecurity-needs-to-be-a-priority-for-the-education-sector/
  2. https://www.digitalshadows.com/blog-and-research/cyber-threats-to-education/
  3. https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/alert-targeted-ransomware-attacks-on-uk-education-sector
  4. https://www.ijstr.org/final-print/mar2021/Cyber-Security-Threat-Analysis-In-Higher-Education-Institutions-As-A-Result-Of-Distance-Learning.pdf
  5. https://www.surf.nl/en/cyber-threat-assessment-education-and-research-2020-2021
  6. https://www.stealthlabs.com/blog/cybersecurity-in-education-10-important-facts-and-statistics/

 

RETAIL

  1. https://www.6dg.co.uk/blog/cyber-threat-retailers/
  2. https://www.helpnetsecurity.com/2021/11/09/retail-industry-security-incidents/
  3. https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/solutions/pdfs/ib-retail-consumer.pdf
  4. file:///C:/Users/POMMATEAU%20Antoine/Downloads/sophos-state-of-ransomware-retail-2021-wp%20(1).pdf
  5. https://www.triskelelabs.com/blog/identifying-and-handling-common-cybersecurity-threats-in-the-retail-industry
  6. https://www.cybersecuritydive.com/news/retailers-cyber-monday-attacks/610701/

 

MARITIME

  1. https://www.secureworld.io/industry-news/port-houston-thwarts-cyberattack
  2. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/cooperation-on-maritime-cybersecurity-introduction/
  3. https://www.csoonline.com/article/3410236/modernized-maritime-industry-transports-cyberthreats-to-sea.html
  4. https://www.securitymagazine.com/gdpr-policy?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.securitymagazine.com%2Farticles%2F92541-maritime-industry-sees-400-increase-in-attempted-cyberattacks-since-february-2020
  5. https://www.cpomagazine.com/cyber-security/maritime-cyber-attacks-are-among-the-greatest-unknown-threats-to-the-global-economy/
  6. https://www.stormshield.com/news/cybermaretique-a-short-history-of-cyberattacks-against-ports/
  7. https://securityintelligence.com/articles/maritime-cybersecurity-rising-tide/
  8. https://www.dnv.com/maritime/insights/topics/maritime-cyber-security/index.html

 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY   

  1. https://media-exp1.licdn.com/dms/document/C4E1FAQHEze5bFLekjA/feedshare-document-pdf-analyzed/0/1645722319173?e=1645876800&v=beta&t=5y0iesX3cHLhEwK0kjPc6eqYTqN8MC_0iyyaXPAfSgQ
  2. https://twitter.com/threathunting_ 
  3. https://www.itic.org/policy/cybersecurity
  4. https://kryptokloud.com/cyber-threats-facing-high-tech-businesses/
  5. https://library.cyentia.com/report/report_001520.html
  6. https://www.fireeye.com/current-threats/reports-by-industry/high-tech-threat-intelligence.html#dismiss-lightbox
  7. https://www.senetas.com/the-importance-of-cybersecurity-in-high-tech-industries/

 

CIVIL SOCIETY  

  1. https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-why-civil-society-remains-so-vulnerable-to-cyberattacks-102016
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19331681.2020.1776658;
  3. https://query.prod.cms.rt.microsoft.com/cms/api/am/binary/RWxPuf
  4. https://eu.usatoday.com/story/tech/2019/07/17/microsoft-finds-more-election-related-cyber-crimes-russia-and-iran/1761507001/
  5. https://cyberpeaceinstitute.org/news/the-dark-side-of-cyberspace-the-threat-to-ngos-and-nonprofits
  6. https://heimdalsecurity.com/blog/cybersecurity-in-non-profit-and-non-governmental-organizations/
  7. https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/04/ngos-fighting-human-rights-violations-and-now-cyber-threat-groups.html
  8. https://www.forbes.com/sites/leemathews/2019/04/30/cybercriminals-steal-1-75-million-from-an-ohio-church/?sh=11d7d4fe420c
  9. https://www.rte.ie/news/2022/0215/1280931-rds-cyberattack/
  10. https://www.civilsociety.co.uk/news/26-of-charities-had-a-cyber-attack-last-year.html
  11. https://srdefenders.org/voice-subjected-to-cyber-attack-in-viet-nam-joint-communication/
  12. https://cyberpeaceinstitute.org/news/non-profit-organization-targeted-by-cyberattack-valuable-lessons-for-you/
  13. https://www.zdnet.com/article/red-cross-hit-with-cyberattack-that-compromised-data-of-515000-highly-vulnerable-people/
  14. https://startupdigital.in/cyber-security/philly-food-bank-loses-1m-in-bec-scam/
  15. https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/05/27/1025443/chinese-hackers-uyghur-united-nations/